Native American spearpoints, tools and arrowhead. Recovered by Tom Ford during Spring 2011 for the White House Farm Foundation, Luray, Virginia. According to archeologist Dr. Carole Nash of James Madison University, the following information pertains to each artifact: (counting left to right)
1) This is the oldest point in this collection and is known as a Halifax point, 5500 years old (dating to 3500 B.C.E.). It is made of white quartz and has been re-sharpened. The material would have come from the Piedmont and exhibits an impact fracture, possibly from hitting the bone of an animal which was killed by the hunter wielding the spear. It would likely have been used by a group traveling from the Piedmont as opposed to having been found at the farm as a result of trading.
2-3) Known as Savannah River points. Approximately 4500 years old (dating to 2500 B.C.E.). Made of local quartzite, most likely from cobbles in the Shenandoah River. Indications of impact fractures and extensive re-sharpening.
4) Holmes point. Approximately 3500 years old. White quartz from the Piedmont.
5) Calvert point. Approximately 3000 years old. White quartz from the Piedmont.
6) Yadkin point. Only actual arrowhead in this collection. Approximately 800 years old. It could have come from an individual camp site in the field. It is made of chert, a preferred material found in a variety of limestone formations throughout the Valley.
7) Pre-form point made of quartzite. The hump on the front indicates this piece was discarded before being finished as there would not have been any way to remove the extra material without fracturing the point.
8-14) These are bifaces that were either never finished as tools or broke during manufacture. We can’t say how old these are because they do not have diagnostic bases that are used to date spearpoints and arrowheads. They were not discarded, however; they were shaped into tools like knives, scrapers, and gravers (note the point on the last artifact on the right – this is a scoring tool). That they are all made from quartzite indicates tool-making from local cobbles on the terraces above the river.